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Urinary Albumin Excretion Patterns of Patients with Cast Nephropathy and Other Monoclonal Gammopathy-Related Kidney Diseases.

Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2012 Sep 27;

Authors: Leung N, Gertz M, Kyle RA, Fervenza FC, Irazabal MV, Eirin A, Kumar S, Cha SS, Rajkumar SV, Lacy MQ, Zeldenrust SR, Buadi FK, Hayman SR, Nasr SH, Sethi S, Ramirez-Alvarado M, Witzig TE, Herrmann SM, Dispenzieri A


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Multiple myeloma is responsible for a wide variety of renal pathologies. Urinary protein and monoclonal spike cannot be used to diagnose cast nephropathy (CN). Because albuminuria is a hallmark of glomerular disease, this study evaluated the percentage of urinary albumin excretion (%UAE) as a tool to differentiate CN from Ig light chain amyloidosis (AL), light chain deposition disease (LCDD), and acute tubular necrosis (ATN). DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Patients were selected from the Renal Biopsy Database and the Dysproteinemia Database. Participants were excluded if laboratory data were missing within 1 week of the renal biopsy. The %UAE was obtained from urine protein electrophoresis. RESULTS: From 1992 to 2011, 260 patients were biopsied (177 with AL, 28 with LCDD, 43 with CN, and 12 with ATN). The %UAE for CN patients was significantly lower (7%) than for ATN (25%), LCDD (55%), and AL (70%) patients (P<0.001). Significant differences were also found in serum creatinine, serum albumin, free light chain ratio, total urine protein, and urine monoclonal spike; only the %UAE remained independently associated with CN in a logistic regression model (P<0.001). The area under the curve for the receiver operator characteristic curve for %UAE was 0.99. At <25%, the %UAE had a sensitivity of 0.98, specificity of 0.94, positive predictive value of 0.75, and negative predictive value of 0.99. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that %UAE was significantly less in CN than the other three renal lesions and %UAE may thus be helpful in diagnosis of CN.

PMID: 23024162 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]