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The added-up albumin enhances the diuretic effect of furosemide in patients with hypoalbuminemic chronic kidney disease: a randomized controlled study.


BMC Nephrol. 2012 Aug 29;13(1):92


Authors: Phakdeekitcharoen B, Boonyawat K


Abstract

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) with edema is a common clinical problem resulting from defects in water and solute excretion. Furosemide is the drug of choice for treatment. In theory, good perfusion and albumin are required for the furosemide to be secreted at the tubular lumen. Thus, in the situation of low glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and hypoalbuminemia, the efficacy of furosemide alone might be limited. There has been no study to validate the effectiveness of the combination of furosemide and albumin in this condition. METHODS: We conducted a randomized controlled crossover study to compare the efficacy of diuretics between furosemide alone and the combination of furosemide plus albumin in stable hypoalbuminemic CKD patients by measuring urine output and sodium. The baseline urine output/sodium at 6 and 24 hours were recorded. The increment of urine output/sodium after treatment at 6 and 24 hours were calculated by using post-treatment minus baseline urine output/sodium at the corresponding period. RESULTS: Twenty-four CKD patients (GFR = 31.0 [PLUS-MINUS SIGN] 13.8 mL/min) with hypoalbuminemia (2.98 [PLUS-MINUS SIGN] 0.30 g/dL) were enrolled. At 6 hours, there were significant differences in the increment of urine volume (0.47 [PLUS-MINUS SIGN] 0.40 vs 0.67 [PLUS-MINUS SIGN] 0.31 L, P < 0.02) and urine sodium (37.5 [PLUS-MINUS SIGN] 29.3 vs 55.0 [PLUS-MINUS SIGN] 26.7 mEq, P < 0.01) between treatment with furosemide alone and with furosemide plus albumin. However, at 24 hours, there were no significant differences in the increment of urine volume (0.49 [PLUS-MINUS SIGN] 0.47 vs 0.59 [PLUS-MINUS SIGN] 0.50 L, P = 0.46) and urine sodium (65.3 [PLUS-MINUS SIGN] 47.5 vs 76.1 [PLUS-MINUS SIGN] 50.1 mEq, P = 0.32) between the two groups. CONCLUSION: The combination of furosemide and albumin has a superior short-term efficacy over furosemide alone in enhancing water and sodium diuresis in hypoalbuminemic CKD patients.Trial registrationThe Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registration (ANZCTR12611000480987).

PMID: 22931630 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]