albumin - publications
Factors affecting levels of urinary albumin excretion in the general population of Spain. Di@bet.es study.
Clin Sci (Lond). 2012 Sep 12;
Authors: Gutiérrez-Repiso C, Rojo-Martínez G, Soriguer F, García-Fuentes E, Vendrell J, Vázquez JA, Valdés S, Urrutia I, Serrano-Ríos M, Pascual-Manich G, Ortega E, Mora-Peces I, Menéndez E, Martínez-Larrad MT, López-Alba A, Gutiérrez G, Gomis R, Goday A, Girbés J, Gaztambide S, Franch J, Delgado E, Catalá M, Castell C, Castaño L, Casamitjana R, Carmena R, Calle-Pascual A, Bordiú E, Bosch-Comas A
Aim: To examine the prevalence of urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR)< 30 mg/g and the associated clinical and environmental factors in a representative sample of the population of Spain. Methods: Di@bet.es study is a national, cross-sectional population-based survey conducted in 2009-10. Clinical, metabolic, socio-demographic, anthropometric data and information about lifestyle habit were collected. Those subjects without known diabetes mellitus (KDM) were given an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Albumin and creatinine were measured in an urinary sample and ACR was calculated. Results: The population prevalence of ACR < 30 mg/g was 7.65% (adjusted for sex and age). The prevalence of ACR<30 mg/g increased with age (p<0.001). Persons with carbohydrate metabolism disorders had a greater prevalence of ACR<30 mg/g but after adjusted for age, sex and hypertension, was significant only those subjects with unknown diabetes mellitus (UKDM) (OR=2.07, 95% CI 1.38-3.09) (p<0.001) and KDM (OR=3.55, 95%CI 2.63-4.80) (p<0.001). Prevalence of ACR<30 mg/g was associated with hypertension (OR=1.48, 95%CI 1.12-1.95) (p=0.001), HOMA-IR (OR=1.47, 95%CI 1.13-1.92) (p=<0.01), metabolic syndrome, (OR=2.17, 95%CI 1.72-2.72) (p<0.001), smoking (OR=1.40, 95%CI 1.06-1.83) (p=<0.05), physical activity (OR=0.68, 95%CI 0.54-0.88) (p=<0.01), and consumption of fish (OR=0.38, 95%CI 0.18-0.78) (p=<0.01). Conclusions: This is the first study that reports the prevalence of ACR < 30 mg/g in the Spanish population. The association between clinical variables and other potentially modifiable environmental variables contribute jointly, and sometimes interactively, to the explanation of prevalence of ACR < 30 mg/g. Many of these risk factors are susceptible to intervention.
PMID: 22970892 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]