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Beta-lactam antibiotics modulate T-cell functions and gene expression via covalent binding to cellular albumin.


Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Feb 4;


Authors: Mor F, Cohen IR


Abstract

Recent work has suggested that beta-lactam antibiotics might directly affect eukaryotic cellular functions. Here, we studied the effects of commonly used beta-lactam antibiotics on rodent and human T cells in vitro and in vivo on T-cell-mediated experimental autoimmune diseases. We now report that experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and adjuvant arthritis were significantly more severe in rats treated with cefuroxime and other beta-lactams. T cells appeared to mediate the effect: an anti-myelin basic protein T-cell line treated with cefuroxime or penicillin was more encephalitogenic in adoptive transfer experiments. The beta-lactam ampicillin, in contrast to cefuroxime and penicillin, did not enhance encephalomyelitis, but did inhibit the autoimmune diabetes developing spontaneously in nonobese diabetic mice. Gene expression analysis of human peripheral blood T cells showed that numerous genes associated with T helper 2 (Th2) and T regulatory (Treg) differentiation were down-regulated in T cells stimulated in the presence of cefuroxime; these genes were up-regulated in the presence of ampicillin. The T-cell protein that covalently bound beta-lactam antibiotics was found to be albumin. Human and rodent T cells expressed albumin mRNA and protein, and penicillin-modified albumin was taken up by rat T cells, leading to enhanced encephalitogenicity. Thus, beta-lactam antibiotics in wide clinical use have marked effects on T-cell behavior; beta-lactam antibiotics can function as immunomodulators, apparently through covalent binding to albumin.

PMID: 23382225 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]