albumin - publications

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1. J Clin Lab Anal. 2012 Feb;26(2):82-92. doi: 10.1002/jcla.21487.

Albuminuria, proteinuria, and urinary albumin to protein ratio in chronic kidney
disease.

Wu MT, Lam KK, Lee WC, Hsu KT, Wu CH, Cheng BC, Ng HY, Chi PJ, Lee YT, Lee CT.

Division of Nephrology, Department of Internal Medicine, Kaohsiung Chang Gung
Memorial Hospital and Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Kaohsiung,
Taiwan.

BACKGROUND: Both albuminuria and proteinuria are important disease markers of
chronic kidney disease (CKD). Their relationship and the ratio between urinary
albumin and protein in patients with CKD have not been investigated. Whether
clinical features can affect these measurements is not clear.
METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 602 CKD patients. Demographic
data, including age, gender, and co-morbidity such as diabetes, hypertension,
hyperuricemia, and hyperlipidemia, were reviewed and recorded. Their urinary
albumin, total protein, and creatinine were determined and urinary albumin to
creatinine ratio (UACR), total protein to creatinine ratio (UPCR), and albumin to
total protein ratio (UAPR) were calculated. Their estimated glomerular filtration
rate (eGFR) was calculated according to serum creatinine. The correlation between
UACR and UPCR was thus analyzed. We also investigated factors associated with
these urinary measurements.
RESULTS: UACR and UPCR increased progressively as renal function deteriorated,
while UAPR increased to a plateau in CKD stage 4. There was direct relationship
between UACR and UPCR. UAPR rose exponentially with the increase of both UACR and
UPCR when UACR <500 mg/g or UPCR <1,000 mg/g. Multivariate regression analysis
revealed diabetes and hyperuricemia were associated with increased UACR and UPCR,
while both urinary parameters were inversely related to male gender and eGFR.
Diabetes and hyperuricemia were associated with increased UAPR and UAPR was
negatively correlated with age and eGFR.
CONCLUSION: There was a significant association between UACR and UPCR in patients
with CKD. Characteristics of patients, renal function, and co-morbidities all
affected UACR, UPCR, and UAPR.

© 2012 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

PMID: 22467323 [PubMed - in process]