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Albumin prevents reactive oxygen species-induced mitochondrial damage, autophagy, and apoptosis during serum starvation.


Apoptosis. 2012 Sep 15;


Authors: Liu SY, Chen CL, Yang TT, Huang WC, Hsieh CY, Shen WJ, Tsai TT, Shieh CC, Lin CF


Abstract

Aberrant levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) rapidly generated from NADPH oxidase (NOX) activation can be cytotoxic due to activating pro-apoptotic signals. However, ROS also induce pro-survival autophagy through the engulfment of damaged mitochondria. This study is aimed at investigating the cytoprotective role of albumin against NOX/ROS-induced autophagy and apoptosis under serum starvation. Serum starvation induced apoptosis following a myeloid cell leukemia sequence 1 (Mcl-1)/Bax imbalance, loss of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential, and caspase activation accompanied by pro-survival autophagy following canonical inhibition of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Aberrant ROS generation, initially occurring through NOX, facilitated mitochondrial damage, autophagy, and apoptosis. Autophagy additionally regulated the accumulation of ROS-generating mitochondria. NOX/ROS permitted p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK)-regulated mitochondrial apoptosis, accompanied by non-canonical induction of autophagy. In addition, activation of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β by NOX/ROS-inactivated Akt facilitated a decrease in Mcl-1, followed by mitochondrial apoptosis as well as autophagy. Restoring albumin conferred an anti-oxidative effect against serum starvation-deregulated NOX, p38 MAPK, and Akt/GSK-3β/Mcl-1/caspase-3 signaling. Albumin also prevented autophagy by sustaining mTORC1. These results indicate an anti-oxidative role for albumin via preventing NOX/ROS-mediated mitochondrial signaling to stimulate apoptosis as well as autophagy. Autophagy, initially induced by canonical inhibition of mTORC1 and enhanced by non-canonical mitochondrial damage, acts physically as a pro-survival mechanism.

PMID: 22983605 [PubMed - as supplied by publisher]